I have a shared database with different applications needing the same base data but also additional data. Without creating a giant master table with all possibilities and without creating 1:1 relationships, how do I model the data?
Application 1 keeps track of supplies per office and needs office data with supplies information (# of pencils, pens, etc) for reports.
I don't quite follow. Surely your "supplies" data doesn't have a 1:1 relationship with "office", and nor does "energy usage"? Why don't you just have the 3 tables as shown, with office as the master of both supplies and energy usage tables?