Sending 10 queries when 1 will do is NOT a good idea. Round trips to the server is expensive.
Also, sending 1 query to get more data than you need is also not a good idea. using bandwidth to transmit data you won't use is expensive, and client code is generally less efficient than sql server at filtering.
In summary, it's best to write 1 query to fetch only the data you need, and no more.