1. When a user issues a COMMIT statement, LGWR puts a commit record in the redo log buffer and writes it to disk immediately, along with the transaction's redo entries. The corresponding changes to data blocks are deferred until it is more efficient to write them. This is called a fast commit mechanism. The atomic write of the redo entry containing the transaction's commit record is the single event that determines the transaction has committed. Oracle returns a success code to the committing transaction, although the data buffers have not yet been written to disk.
In times of high activity, LGWR can write to the online redo log file using group commits. For example, assume that a user commits a transaction. LGWR must write the transaction's redo entries to disk, and as this happens, other users issue COMMIT statements. However, LGWR cannot write to the online redo log file to commit these transactions until it has completed its previous write operation. After the first transaction's entries are written to the online redo log file, the entire list of redo entries of waiting transactions (not yet committed) can be written to disk in one operation, requiring less I/O than do transaction entries handled individually. Therefore, Oracle minimizes disk I/O and maximizes performance of LGWR. If requests to commit continue at a high rate, then every write (by LGWR) from the redo log buffer can contain multiple commit records.