Perhaps as a starting point, you could record the macro, then see what areas need refinement. Recording macros is one of the best ways to learn VBA. If you are stuck, then you can post back with what else needs fixing.
After getting the macro set up, then it is easy to attach it to a button. Draw the object, right-click and choose "assign macro" and you are done, except for the adjusting the appearance of the button.
all ive done to your code is stopped it selecting various ranges but just copying and pasting them
also you were wanting to obtain the Current Weeks start date
you could use this to get mondays date
Dim MyDate As Date, strMyDate As String
'Current Weeks Start Date
MyDate = Date - Weekday(Date, vbMonday) + 1 'myDate is Mondays Date
strMyDate = CStr(Format(MyDate, "dd mmmm yyyy"))
Range("A1").Formula = strMyDate